Ph.D. student: Michael Juhl
Dissertation title: Metasurface Polarimetry
Dr. N. Asger Mortensen, Professor and VILLUM Investigator at Center for Nano Optics and Chair of Technical Science at Danish Institute for Advanced Study at The University of Southern Denmark.
Dr. Slawomir M. Koziel, Professor at School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University.
Advisor: Dr. Kristján Leósson, Managing Director of the Department of Materials, Biotechnology and Energy at the Innovation Center Iceland.
Dr. Hafliði Pétur Gíslason, Professor at the Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland.
Dr. J. P. Balthasar Müller, Associate in applied physics at Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Data Scientist with Cloudera Fast Forward Labs.
Chair of Ceremony: Dr. Oddur Ingólfsson, Professor and the Head of the Faculty of Physical Sciences at the University of Iceland.
The polarization of electromagnetic waves (the direction of transversal vibration of its electric field vector) provides essential information about the emitting sources and scattering objects. Its measurement, i.e., optical polarimetry, has a history of more than 200 years and has found various applications in virtually every branch of science and technology.
Fabrication of optical metasurfaces that allow the manipulation of electromagnetic waves with sub-wavelength scale structures has become possible thanks to the rapid development of nanotechnology in the last 50 years. Metasurfaces have the potential of simplifying and miniaturizing existing optical components, including polarimeters. This thesis explores the details of a promising metasurface design for the polarimetric measurement of light. This in-line (signal-saving) metasurface polarimeter is based on subwavelength-spaced phased arrays of gold nanorod antennas that provide an intensity modulation of scattered light depending on the polarization of the incident light to measure the full Stokes vector. An analytical model of the radiation pattern of the metasurface is presented and compared with numerical simulations. Polarimeters operating at telecom wavelengths have been fabricated in compact fiber-coupled packages, comprising an ultra-thin metasurface aligned to four or six photodetectors and characterized with high sampling rates. Non-terminating measurements of the polarization state of light by sampling only a small part of the total light intensity have been performed in in-plane and out-of-plane configurations. The error of the polarimeter has been analyzed and analytical and numerical models for the systematic error are presented.
The capacity of the miniatuarization of the metasurface polarimeter has been demonstrated by transferring the metasurface to the facet of a single-mode near-infrared optical fiber. To realize such a fiber-based metasurface polarimeter, a novel template stripping transfer lithography method has been developed. The gold nanopattern is stripped from a silicon wafer and transferred to the fiber facet by means of a UV-curable hybrid polymer. In-line polarimetric measurement has been demonstrated by measuring the intensity of four out-of-plane scattering orders while coupling the non-scattered light back into an optical fiber.
The project was carried out in collaboration with Innovation Center Iceland.
About the doctoral candidate:
Michael Juhl received a M.Sc. degree in engineering at the Technical University of Denmark in 2003. He has worked as a project manager and process development engineer at Alight Technologies A/S and is now postdoc at the Innovation Center Iceland focusing on neural optics.